Non Destructive Examination (NDE)

Any imperfection in material to be identified at the earliest in order to avoid the failure of the material. It can be done in two methods

Destructive Method

Non Destructive Method

In Nondestructive methods we have following classifications


Source: ASME Sec V


Project Progress Reporting – EVM

Earned Value Management

Measuring the health of the project is crucial in managing and controlling the project. Generally we will see managers and engineers saying that we are ahead of schedule by considering the tasks of project being completed on time as per plan but the reality is cost is out of control or otherwise over budget.

So reporting progress of project should consider both TIME and COST. hence making a progress report more meaningful.

one such techniques of measuring and reporting the project progress is Earned value Analysis

We have three parameter

  • Planned Value (Budget for work scheduled)
  • Actual Cost
  • Earned value (Budget for work performed)
  1. Planned Value (PV) or Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) or Budget

It is the approved value of the work to be completed in a given time – it is a baseline

Total Planned value = Budget at Completion (BAC)

Application of PV

To calculate Schedule variance and Schedule Performance Index

Schedule variance (SV) = EV-PV

Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = EV/PV

  1. Actual Cost (AC) or Actual cost of Work Performed (ACWP)

It is the total cost incurred for the actual work completed to date

                Application of AC

To calculate cost variance and cost performance index

Cost Variance (CV) = EV-AC

Cost Performance Index (CPI) = EV/AC

  1. Earned Value (EV) – the value of work actually completed to date. – it is also called Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)

It is work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work

It shows how much value you have earned from the money you have spent to date (BCWP)

Sample Data

Month Planned Value (in KD) Actual Cost (in KD) Earned Value (in KD)
January 100 150 50
February 200 300 350
March 500 500 500
April 700 550 600


Schedule Variance (SV)

EV = 600

PV = 700

SV = EV- PV= -100 (The project is getting delayed since variance is negative)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

SPI = EV/PV =600/700 =0.85 (The Project is delayed since SPI is less than 1)


Cost Variance (CV)

EV = 600

AC = 550

CV = EV- AC= 50 (The project is under budget since actual cost is less than earned value)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

CPI = EV/AC =600/550 =1.09 (The Project is under budget since CPI is greater than 1)


Techniques for Project Estimation

Estimating for any project is a challenging task since the project success or failure depends mostly on how we estimate the cost and schedule of the project.

Developing an estimate can be based on historical data, detailed breakdown, similar project comparison, expert judgement and so on.

Here are the few estimating techniques to be followed for proper estimating the project

Estimation Techniques.jpg


Project – Contracts


Contractual Relationship

Any Project has to executed as apart of contract/ agreement. Understanding the nature of contracts the project can be carried out will help to control it in more practical sense.

The following are the contractual relationship any project can be in get into

  1. Fixed Price – This contract has following nature
  • Setting a fixed price for a defined product or services or result.
  • Fixed price contracts incorporate financial incentives for achieving or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule delivery dates, cost and technical performance
  • Buyer need to specify scope precisely to seller – any changes further will change the contract price
    • Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP)
      1. It is favorable to the buying organization since the price for the good is fixed and not subjected to change unless the scope of the work changes
      2. Any cost increase due to adverse performance is the responsibility of the seller
    • Fixed Price Incentive Fees Contracts (FPIF)
      1. Fixed price arrangement with some flexibility for both buyer and seller by financial incentives tied to achieving agreed upon metrics
      2. Incentives are related to cost, schedule and technical performance of the seller
    • Fixed Price with economic price adjustment contracts (FP-EPA)
      1. It is a fixed price contract with a special provision allowing for pre-defined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions like inflation changes, cost increases or decreases for special commodity

2. Cost Reimbursable

This category of contract involves payment to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work plus a fee representing seller profit

  • Cost plus Fixed Fee (CPFF)
  1. The seller is reimbursed for all allowable cost incurred in the performing of contract work and receives a fixed fee payment calculated as a percentage of initial project costs
  • Cost plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)
    1. The seller is reimbursed for all allowable cost incurred in the performing of contract work and receives a predetermined incentive fee based upon achieving certain performance objectives
  • Cost plus Award Fee (CPAF)
    1. The seller is reimbursed for all allowable cost incurred in the performing of contract work but the majority of the fee is earned on satisfaction of certain broad subjective performance criteria defined.

3. Time and Material Contracts (T&M)

It is a hybrid type of contractual arrangement that contain aspects of both cost reimbursable and fixed price contracts

Contract Types.jpg


There are different types of schedules prepared and presented along the life of the project – one should know when/ to whom and how much information to be shared through the schedules

Here are some of the levels of schedules

Level -1 – Executive Summary – Project Master Schedule

  • Milestone type of Schedule – Usually One Page – Highlights Major project Activities, Milestone and deliverables.

Level-2- Management Summary -Summary Master Schedule

  • Used for higher level management reporting – Summation of project by area wise –which is to be continued for level-3 planning

Level-3 – Project –Co-Ordination Schedule – Publication Schedule

  • CPM ( Critical Path Method) overview of the project – developed by main contractors during tendering phase –  rolled up summary of Level 4 – used for monthly reporting to the clients

Level-4- Execution Schedule – Project Working Level Schedule

  • Expansion of parts of Level 3 Schedule – developed by contractor/ sub-contractor/trade contractors – Working level CPM Schedule

Level-5 – Detail Schedule

  • Further breakdown of Level 4 Schedule – for close follow up by day to day – developed by the site supervisors – weekly Schedule Level of Schedule


PM Process 05 – Collect Requirements

  1. Collect Requirements

Collect requirement is the process of determining, documenting and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives

Why to collect requirements?

To define and manage project and product scope

Collect Requirements

Source: PMBOK 5th Edition


Input-1           Scope Management Plan

Input-2           Requirement Management Plan

Input-3           Stakeholder Management Plan

Input-4            Project Charter

Input-5            Stakeholder Register



Tool-1             Interviews

Tool-2             Focus Groups

Tool-3             Facilitated Workshops

Tool-4             Group Creativity Techniques

Tool-5             Group Decision Techniques

Tool-6             Questionnaire and Surveys

Tool-7             Observations

Tool-8             Prototypes

Tool-9             Bench marking

Tool-10           Context Diagrams

Tool-11           Document Analysis



Ouput-1          Requirements Documentation

Output-2        Requirement Traceability Matrix


PM Process-04 – Plan Scope Management

4. Plan Scope Management

What is Scope?

Scope is a work required to be done for the successful completion of the project

Types of Scope?

Product Scope – Covers the features and functions of the product

Project Scope – Work to be performed to deliver a product or service or results

What is Scope Management Plan?

Scope Management Plan documents how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlled.

Plan Scope Mgmt

Source: PMBOK 5th Edition


Input-1             Project Mgmt Plan (Approved Subsidiary Plans of Proj Mgmt Plan)

Input-2            Project Charter (high Level Description of the Project)

Input-3            Enterprise Environmental Factors

Input-4            Organizational Process Assets 


Tool-1             Expert Judgment (Knowledgeable and experienced Parties)

Tool-2             Meetings (Project Meetings) 


Output-1         Scope Management Plan

Output-2         Requirements Mgmt Plan (How requirmnt r planned, tracked &reported)